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Inventory: Development and potential of China\\'s biofuel industry

author:管理员 Publication time:2018-09-07 16:30:42 Read: 1545 second
In 2017, China's oil import dependence rose to 72.3%, and net oil imports including crude oil, refined oil, liquefied petroleum gas and other products reached 418.8 million tons, up 10.7% from 2016. In 2017, China's crude oil imports were 420 million tons, surpassing the United States as the world's largest importer of crude oil. The rapid rise in oil imports and import dependence has brought about an increasingly serious impact on China's oil security. China's oil security issues have also caused concern in some countries.
Can domestically produced oil and petroleum alternative fuels “foster China”? Compared with the limited resources of coal liquefaction and the development of domestic oil and gas resources, biofuel technology, which has great potential as a renewable energy source, has received more and more attention.
In recent years, the concept of biofuels has gradually warmed up around the world, and more and more countries are turning to environmental protection and regenerability in energy development and utilization. According to the research, the large-scale development of biofuel industry and energy agroforestry can effectively improve the ecological environment, reduce soil erosion and soil erosion. The use of biofuels for the protection and improvement of China's atmospheric environment is also of great significance: compared with fossil fuels, the use of biofuels rarely produces atmospheric pollutants such as NOx and SOx, and CO2 emissions from biomass energy utilization are much lower than conventional. energy.
According to forecasts, if the biofuel development capacity can reach 105 million tons by 2050, it will be able to green about 30 million hectares of barren hills and wasteland, reducing emissions by about 310 million tons of CO2.
The construction of an industrial chain from energy agriculture and forestry to biofuel processing will continue to drive the agricultural economy and the forestry economy.
The amount of biofuel development in 2020 is estimated to be around 19 million tons, and the initial estimate can give national and local production value of 100 billion yuan. If the biofuel development capacity reaches 50 million tons by 2050, it will create an annual output value of about 500 billion yuan, absorb more than 10 million labors, drive rural economic development, and create a large number of jobs, especially in rural areas. It can absorb more than 10 million labors, mainly because the rural labor force will provide strong support for China's urbanization.
On the one hand, China's urbanization has increased the per capita energy demand, especially per capita fuel demand; on the other hand, urbanization needs to be accompanied by the creation of industrial construction and employment opportunities: energy agriculture and forestry (and biofuels plus Industry) can play an important role in both aspects.
Nowadays, China is a big energy-consuming country, and energy pressure is increasing day by day. The ecological environment is also deteriorating due to the large-scale development of fossil energy. Although the country continues to increase investment support in renewable energy such as wind, solar and hydropower, such energy is vulnerable to environmental impact and instability. Therefore, the development and application of biofuel technology has great potential in China.
Many developed countries have rich experience in bio-energy technology research and development. Especially in the United States, the core strategy of bio-energy technology development in the United States is consistent and clear: guided by the country's prior investment, attracting industry to participate in research and development and long-term development. (20 years or even 50 years later) Key technologies that can play a major role, accelerate their commercialization and form a corresponding equipment manufacturing system.
To ensure the development and promotion of biomass energy, the US Department of Energy announced on May 3, 2018 that it will continue to invest US million to fund four research projects to support the early projects of the Office of Energy Efficiency and the Office of Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technology. Energy research and development. Organizations can secure a portion of project funding, including those that develop efficient conversion processes to increase the affordability of biomass energy products and fuels.
The funds are also used to develop affordable and sustainable non-food-specific energy crops that can be used as raw materials for the production of biofuels and biologics.
US Energy Secretary Rick Perry said: "By announcing funding opportunities, US biomass resources, including algae, energy crops and various waste streams, will be more effectively converted into affordable biofuels, organisms. Energy and biological products."
At present, a new round of biomass energy research and development climax has been set up in the United States, and a large number of institutions have participated in the project.
China may learn from the experience of the United States and strengthen the guiding role of the country's advanced investment (especially considering the Chinese government's high control over the energy sector and the agricultural sector): the development of key technologies can be adequately funded; various mutual support or competition Technology can be fairly screened and developed in a systematic framework. In order to stimulate the development potential of bioenergy technology, promote the rapid development of domestic biofuel industry and energy agriculture and forestry.
The bio-fuel industry and energy agro-forestry are industries with significant energy, social and environmental benefits, and should receive certain policy support, such as tax incentives and discount loans. This is especially important for emerging industries in the beginning. China has introduced the "Renewable Energy Law", but it is the same as the previous "Air Pollution Prevention Law", "Energy Conservation Law", "Clean Production Promotion Law" and other related laws, in the renewable energy, renewable energy and other energy sources. Support is basically a principle rather than an operational law, and specific and clear regulations are yet to be introduced. In addition, there is still a considerable degree of monopoly in the conventional fuel industry in China, which restricts the biofuel industry from entering the market as soon as possible. The resolution of such problems also depends on national policies.
In recent years, in order to promote the development of the bio-fuel industry, China has also introduced a subsidy policy for bioethanol, and according to the “Implementation Plan for Expanding Biofuel Ethanol Production and Promoting the Use of Ethanol Gasoline for Vehicles” issued by the 15 departments, by 2020 The country will basically achieve full coverage of ethanol gasoline for vehicles. This also shows that the country is constantly increasing its efforts in the application and promotion of bioenergy. However, in terms of biodiesel, due to the unclear responsibilities of the relevant national authorities, although some laws, regulations, subsidy policies, and tax incentives have been introduced to encourage the development of biodiesel, there are still no supporting rules for actual implementation.
The industry generally believes that in China, the biggest advantage of the promotion and use of biodiesel is to solve the food safety problem of “ditch oil” returning to the table. In fact, "China's biodiesel production process is already in the forefront of the world. China uses the worst raw materials (ditch oil) to produce the world's best biodiesel. The survey found that 3 million tons of waste oil is consumed every year in China, ie About 10% of the average per capita is eating edible oil made from waste oil. From this perspective, domestic promotion of biodiesel is more urgent than Europe and the United States, and it is more supportive and committed to solving Chen than the current state. The promotion of ethanol gasoline for the food problem is more urgent.
In the United States, the biodiesel industry lags behind the EU due to the lag of previous related incentive policies. However, with the support of government policies in recent years, US biodiesel production has increased rapidly since 2011. By 2017, US biodiesel production was 1.594 billion gallons, an increase of 65% from 2011.
Biodiesel also has the characteristics of renewable resources, which helps to reduce particulate matter and greenhouse gas emissions, and “turn waste into treasure” to promote the rational use of waste oils such as waste oil, and it is also used because of its high flash point and high cetane number. very safe. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, in the United States, biodiesel contributes nearly 50% of particulate matter reductions in the country.
Therefore, for the promotion of biodiesel, China should continue to bless and expand the scope of support. Not only that, but also suggest that the relevant state departments should carry out the following related work as soon as possible: to carry out research on land availability, including the types, areas and distribution of available land resources; the suitability of various possible energy plants, and possible Development potential and distribution; integrate energy agriculture, energy forestry into the research of agricultural and forestry development strategies, formulate practical development strategies and plans, strengthen technology research and development; new varieties of energy plants (crops) with high yield, high oil content and strong environmental adaptability Breeding; energy crop harvesting, storage, transportation and other related technologies and equipment, efficient processing and conversion process and equipment research and development.

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