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Bioenergy: How much do you know about the advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel?

author:管理员 Publication time:2018-11-16 13:23:43 Read: 1246 second
Biodiesel made from animal and plant waste oils has many advantages, both for fuel and for other uses:
1. Biodiesel and petrochemical diesel have very similar properties. When used as diesel fuel, there is no need to modify the engine, and the storage is the same as petrochemical diesel.
2. Biodiesel used as fuel for automobiles can reduce emissions of exhaust gas (CO2 carbon dioxide) by 80%, sulfur oxide emissions by 100%, reduce unburned hydrocarbons by >90%, reduce aromatics by 75-90%, and reduce carcinogens. 90%.
3. The combustion of biodiesel (CO2 carbon dioxide) is much lower than the CO2 absorbed during the whole growth of the plant, which is beneficial to alleviate the greenhouse effect.
4. Biodiesel contains 11% oxygen, is basically free of sulfur, and has very good lubricity. It does not affect fuel consumption, fuel ignition, output power, and engine torque.
5. Because the raw materials are animal and vegetable oils, biodiesel is also renewable.
6. Biodiesel is environmentally friendly and contains no benzene or other carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and low levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
7. Biodiesel has high safety and high flash point. It is about 70 °C higher than petroleum diesel, and it is not necessary to consider it as flammable.
8. Biodiesel is easily biodegradable and its biodegradability is four times faster than petroleum diesel. After 28 days, biodiesel can degrade 85-88% in water, which is the same as the degradation rate of glucose. The accidental inflow into land or water brings very low harm.
9. The toxicity of biodiesel is low, and the acute oral toxicity lethal dose is >17.4g/kg body weight, which is one tenth of the toxicity of salt; relatively safe, it must be that the fuel is not a beverage.
10. Low irritation to the skin. Undiluted biodiesel is less irritating to human skin than 4% soapy water.
But in addition to the above advantages, biodiesel also has some disadvantages:
1. The calorific value of biodiesel is slightly lower than that of petroleum diesel.
2. When biodiesel is used as fuel for automobiles, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) is slightly higher than that of petroleum diesel.
3. Raw materials have a great influence on the properties of biodiesel. If the content of saturated fatty acids in raw materials such as palmitic acid or stearic acid is high, the low temperature fluidity of biodiesel may be poor; if polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid Or high linolenic acid content, biodiesel oxidation stability may be poor, which requires the addition of the corresponding additives to solve.
4. In the production process, the raw materials for biodiesel are refined under the “four noes” policy of “cannot compete with grain”, “cannot compete with people”, “can’t compete with people”, and “can’t pollute the environment”. Only oil crops or trench oil can be used, and the collection of trench oil is a problem.
In response to the shortcomings of biodiesel, we must vigorously develop the bio-oil crop industry and solve the problem of biodiesel raw materials:
China should focus on the development of large-scale planting and promotion of woody oilseed plants, and accelerate the technological innovation and industrialization of microbial oil fermentation. At the same time, the use of plant genetic breeding technology to improve the production of oil crops and the selective development of oil crops that do not compete with the grain. Rely on the progress of all aspects, develop innovative oil production technology to ensure the healthy development of China's biodiesel industry and oleochemical industry.
Raw materials for biodiesel can be obtained from waste oil, vegetable oil, animal fat oil, and the like. China's vast land and resources, can achieve more plant oil (that is, bio-gasoline, biodiesel).
In this regard, many countries have been conducting research and development of related technologies, shifting from industry to agriculture, and vigorously developing agricultural oil planting. “Planting oil” will be a substitute for future oil and will certainly be supported by the national government, which will be the pillar industry of the future country.
In foreign countries, the use of the "engineering microalgae" method to produce biodiesel has opened up a new technical approach for diesel production. The National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) has built "engineering microalgae", a kind of "engineering small ring algae" of diatoms, through modern biotechnology. Under laboratory conditions, the lipid content of "engineered microalgae" can be increased to more than 60%, and outdoor production can be increased to more than 40%, while the microalgae has a lipid content of 5%-20% under normal conditions. The increase of lipid content in "engineered microalgae" is mainly due to the high expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) gene in microalgae cells, which plays an important role in controlling lipid accumulation.
The use of "engineering microalgae" to produce diesel has important economic and ecological significance. Its superiority lies in the high production capacity of microalgae and the use of seawater as a natural medium to save agricultural resources; it is several times higher than that of terrestrial plants; The biodiesel produced does not contain sulfur, does not emit toxic gases when burned, can be degraded by microorganisms when discharged into the environment, does not pollute the environment, develops oily microalgae or “engineered microalgae” is a production of biodiesel. Trend.
At present, Terry Energy, which has the world's leading pure hydrocarbon bioenergy technology, has launched: pure hydrocarbon biodiesel and pure hydrocarbon biogasoline.
Unlike traditional biodiesel, pure hydrocarbon biodiesel and pure hydrocarbon biogasoline have the same chemical composition, physicochemical properties and dynamic properties as petrochemical diesel and gasoline. After refined and blended, the quality can reach the national standard of national VI diesel and gasoline. It can be seamlessly connected with the petrochemical and gasoline markets. The characteristics are environmentally friendly, safe and pollution-free, and are typical green energy products.
Thale Energy has also opened up a new way to solve the problem of biodiesel raw materials: through the large-scale outdoor open diatom cultivation, refined oil and fat as raw material for biodiesel production. At present, this technology is mature. According to the experimental data, the current cultured diatoms can produce 120 tons of dry algae per hectare per year. Calculated by taking 30% of the oil, it can produce 36,000 liters of bio-oil, and the technology is continuously improved. Production will continue to increase, and it will become one of the main sources of raw materials for Terry Energy's pure hydrocarbon bioenergy.
The future of biodiesel is bright, and it will become a major substitute for oil in the future. Although it is still a long way from the popularity, the world is now working hard in this direction. If the government's policy support and subsidies are available, it will be more conducive to the development and popularization of biogasoline and biodiesel.
Green bio-diesel and bio-gasoline as a substitute for petroleum are accelerating globalization. Nowadays, the development of various fields is gradually becoming saturated. New energy will be the next hotspot to create world wealth. A new world-class enterprise will be born. The annual turnover of bio-energy is 40 trillion yuan. Who can this "cake"? Eat it?
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