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An overview of international biodiesel production technology

author:管理员 Publication time:2016-10-20 14:25:28 Read: 1376 second
The preparation of biodiesel mainly includes direct use and mixing, microemulsion, thermal cracking and transesterification. The first two methods because of high viscosity oil and less volatile, causing the engine nozzle in different degrees of coking and stuck piston rings and carbon deposition etc.. Vegetable oil and animal fat splitting drawback is, the need for a catalyst at high temperature, and the reaction is difficult to control, expensive equipment; and the transesterification process mainly through transesterification of high viscosity of vegetable oils and animal fats into low viscosity fatty acid ester by transesterification of biodiesel with low viscosity method, no need to consume a lot of energy other notable features.
At present, biodiesel is mainly produced by chemical method, which uses animal and vegetable oil and methanol or ethanol. Low carbon alcohol in acid or alkaline catalyst and high temperature (230~250 DEG C) by esterification reaction to generate the corresponding fatty acid methyl or ethyl ester, then after washing and drying to obtain the biodiesel.
But the chemical synthesis of biodiesel has the following disadvantages: complex process, alcohol must be excessive, the follow-up process must have alcohol recovery device, the high energy consumption: deep color, because of unsaturated fatty acid in high temperature metamorphism; esterification products were difficult to recovery, high cost; production process of caustic waste. "Engineering microalgae" produced diesel oil, which has opened up a new technical way for the production of diesel. The national renewable Laboratory (NREL) through modern biotechnology built "project microalgae", which is a diatom Cyclotella engineering "". Under the laboratory conditions, the lipid content in the "engineering microalgae" can be increased to more than 60%, and the outdoor production can also be increased to more than 40%. In general, the lipid content of microalgae in the natural state is 5%-20%. Has important economic and ecological significance of "the use of diesel oil production engineering microalgae, its superiority lies in: microalgae high production capacity, use seawater as a natural medium saving agricultural resources; than terrestrial plants yield oil several times higher than the biodiesel production; no sulfur, combustion does not emit toxic gases into the environment can also be microbial degradation, pollution of the environment, the development of oil-rich microalgae or engineered microalgae is a major trend in biodiesel production.
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